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Emergency-Room

Emergency Medicine Certificate Program

The Certificate in Emergency Medicine is for physician assistants who are interested in obtaining specialized education in emergency medicine, to prepare them for a position in a high acuity emergency department.

The Emergency Medicine Certification Program at Nova Southeastern University will provide physician assistants a chance to gain additional knowledge of emergency medicine in an online curriculum. Currently, one-year residency programs exist throughout the country in which advanced practitioners can supplement their education. Most of the time, this requires relocation and is a financial obstacle. This program, however, is unique in that we will provide didactic coursework remotely, but will also require onsite training to teach clinical skills and also assess the student using simulation. This certificate program is targeting advanced practitioners who are currently employed, but seeking additional coursework in emergency medicine to make them more marketable for a position in an emergency department.

This certificate program was discussed with multiple emergency department medical directors who felt that this program would greatly contribute to an applicant's curriculum vitae.

ADMISSION REQUIREMENTS

  • Active PA-C License
  • Minimum of a Bachelor’s degree
  • Cumulative GPA of 2.5

ADMISSION PROCEDURES

Applicants must submit the following:

  • NSU application
  • Application fee of $50
  • All final official transcripts
  • Two letters of recommendation from health care professionals
  • If applicable, official course by course evaluation of all foreign coursework by a NACES recognized evaluation provider
  • If applicable, proof of English proficiency. Test results must be sent directly from the testing agency to NSU. Proof of English language competency can also be in the form of successful completion of a baccalaureate, masters, or doctoral degree at an approved U.S. institution of higher education.
    • Applicants may submit one of the following:
      • Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL)
      • International English Language Testing System (IELTS)
      • GMAT
      • GRE
      • SAT
      • ACT

To apply for the Certificate in Emergency Medicine Program, please visit Apply Now.

TUITION

A $200 seat deposit is required to reserve a seat in the program after receiving an acceptance letter.
For additional information, please see Tuition and Fees.
Please be advised that this certificate program is not available for federal student financial aid.

CURRICULUM

At the completion of the Certificate in Emergency Medicine, students will have completed eighteen credit hours (6 courses each being 3 credit hours). Two courses will be offered each semester, so a student can complete this program in one year.

Credits: 3

Offered: Fall Semesters

This course will review Cardiovascular and Hematologic Emergencies. This course will give you the understanding on how to diagnose and treat CV and Hematologic emergencies.

Cardiovascular Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe the signs, symptoms and treatment of acute coronary syndromes including stable angina, unstable angina, non-ST segment elevation MI, and ST segment elevation MI.
  2. Recognize the following types of cardiac dysrhythmias as well as their treatments: ventricular, supraventricular, and disorders of conduction. Differentiate when one should defibrillate versus cardiovert a patient with a dysrhythmia versus cardiac pacing.
  3. Describe the pathophysiology of mitral valve prolapsed, aortic stenosis and mitral regurgitation and its clinical consequences.
  4. Describe the risk factors, clinical features, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of endocarditis/myocarditis and pericarditis. Describe some of the complications that can be seen with prosthetic heart valves and the considerations when a patient with such a valve presents with a bleeding problem.
  5. Describe the ED treatment options for both mild and severe decompensated heart failure and how lab testing may help in diagnosis.
  6. Compare and contrast the clinical presentation, ED treatment, and disposition of patients that present with hypertensive urgency vs. hypertensive emergency.
  7. Define the risk factors for aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection, presenting symptoms, and the appropriate ED work up and treatment.
  8. Describe some of the risk factors, symptoms and treatment for both arterial and venous thromboembolic disease.
  9. Describe diagnostic options for suspected pulmonary embolism as well as their sensitivity and specificity. Discuss treatment options for an acute pulmonary embolism.
  10. Describe some presentations for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and dilated cardiomyopathy.
  11. Describe the presentation and treatment of pericardial effusion and tamponade.

Hematologic Learning Outcomes:

  1. Examine the differential diagnosis of anemia and describe how to distinguish each type based on analysis of the complete blood count (CBC).
  2. Describe the ED management of the bleeding patient. Summarize the indications and contraindications for blood product administration including: packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, platelets, specific clotting factors (e.g., Factor VII)
  3. Explain the physiology of the coagulation cascade, and how the PT/PTT are utilized in assessing its function.
  4. Differentiate the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of patients that present with acquired platelet defects as a result of: Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura (ITP), thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura (TTP), hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), and HELLP syndrome.
  5. Describe the mechanism of impaired homeostasis in the setting of liver disease, renal disease, and HIV. 6. Describe the ED treatment of congenital bleeding disorders including, Von Willebrand disease and the hemophilia’s.
  6. Explain the pathophysiology and treatment of sickle cell anemia and its potential complications including: vasoocclusive pain crisis, acute chest syndrome, splenic sequestration, aplastic crisis, and stroke. Common treatments for sickle cells patients having a vaso-occlusive crisis.
  7. Describe the indications, contraindications, and potential side effects of the following medications: anticoagulants (warfarin, heparin, low-molecular weight heparin, direct thrombin inhibitors), antiplatelet agents (aspirin, NSAIDs, clopidogrel, glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitors), fibrinolytic agents (alteplase, reteplase, tenecteplase).

Credits: 3

Offered: Fall Semesters

This course will review Neurologic, Infectious Disease and Pediatric Emergencies. The student will feel comfortable in appropriately recognizing these disorders, ordering the proper tests and treating the disease process.

Neurologic Learning Outcomes:

  1. Compare and contrast the pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of TIA versus CVA. List the exclusion criteria for TPA in a stroke patient.
  2. Describe how a patient with a subdural or intracerebral hemorrhage may present and some of the risk factors for these conditions.
  3. Explain the role of blood thinning reversal agents and antihypertensives in the acute treatment of intracranial hemorrhage.
  4. Explain the difference between central and peripheral vertigo. List the main causes of ataxia and gait disturbance.
  5. Compare and contrast the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of following types of headaches: tension, migraine, cluster, spinal, meningitis, pseudotumor cerebri and intracranial bleed. Explain the role of CT imaging and lumbar puncture in the diagnostic evaluation of a suspected subarachnoid hemorrhage.
  6. Describe the presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of the following infectious and inflammatory conditions: encephalitis, brain abscess, epidural abscess, meningitis, myelitis, neuritis, and neuropathies.
  7. Describe the following types of seizures: absence, focal, generalized, and febrile.
  8. Compare and contrast the clinical presentation and treatment of Bell’s palsy versus trigeminal neuralgia.
  9. Explain some of the symptoms a patient may report that should prompt one to consider the diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.
  10. Describe the common patient scenarios in which the diagnosis of spinal cord compression should be considered. Explain the diagnostic evaluation and treatment of this condition.

Infectious Disease Learning Outcomes:

  1. Utilize the appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy in the treatment of commonly encountered bacterial infections including: community acquired pneumonia, cellulitis,  urinary tract infections,  bacterial pharyngitis,  sinusitis,  acute otitis media,  acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis,  bacterial meningitis,  acute gastroenteritis,  sexually transmitted disease,  bacterial endocarditis and toxic shock syndrome.
  2. Evaluate the pathophysiology and rationale for aggressive early goal directed therapy in the ED treatment of sepsis and septic shock.
  3. Describe the management of occupational exposure of a health care worker to potentially infectious bodily fluids, including the indications for the initiation of HIV prophylaxis.
  4. List the common opportunistic infections that occur in patients with AIDS, and how such infections are treated: cryptococcal meningitis, toxoplasmosis, pneumocystis pneumonia, cytomegalovirus retinitis, esophageal candidiasis, and tuberculosis.
  5. Describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of commonly encountered viral infections in the ED, including: rhinovirus infection, influenza, infectious mononucleosis, herpes simplex virus and herpes zoster/varicella, rabies, roseola and rubella.
  6. Describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and ED treatment of common tick-borne infections and protozoan infection.

Pediatric Emergency Learning Outcomes:

Specifically, the learner should be able to state the presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of the following pediatric conditions:    croup,  epiglottis,  intussusception,  bronchiolitis,  retropharyngeal abscess,  pyloric stenosis, febrile seizures,  otitis media,  newborn jaundice,  UTIs,  periorbital/orbital cellulites,  Henoch-Schonlein purpura,   hemolytic uremic syndrome,   fluid therapy in children,   Kawasaki’s disease,   nursemaid’s elbow,  acute rheumatic fever,  diabetic ketoacidosis,  non-accidental trauma.

Credits: 3

Offered: Winter Semesters

This course will review the OB/GYN, Ophthalmological, ENT and Psychiatric Emergencies. The student will be able to recognize, order the appropriate tests and treat these emergencies.

OB/GYN learning outcomes:

  1. Describe the various types of miscarriages and the appropriate ED treatment and disposition. Explain the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy and how the quantitative HCG levels and ultrasound aid in its diagnostic evaluation.
  2. Describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and ED treatment of preeclampsia, eclampsia, and HEELP syndrome.
  3. List the risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment for placental abruption.
  4. Explain what classes of drugs are safe in pregnancy and what drugs are contraindicated.
  5. Define premature rupture of membranes. Explain how this condition is diagnosed and treated.
  6. Define endometritis and explain its diagnosis and treatment.
  7. List the common causes of vaginal discharge and discuss how the wet prep aids in the diagnostic evaluation.
  8. Define pelvic inflammatory disease and bartholins abscess and discuss its diagnosis, treatment, and complications.
  9. List the signs and symptoms of ovarian cysts and ovarian torsion. Explain the ED treatment and disposition of this condition.

Ophthalmologic Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe the presentation and treatment of the following ophthalmologic emergencies: HSV and herpes zoster infections of the eye, blepharitis, corneal abrasions, corneal ulcer, dacrocystitis, periorbital and orbital cellulititis, acute angle closure glaucoma, iritis, optic neuritis retinal detachment, ruptured globe, subconjunctival hemorrhage, hyphema, orbital blowout fracture, ultraviolet keratitis, ocular chemical exposures, and ocular foreign bodies.

ENT Learning Outcomes:

  1. Discuss the management of foreign bodies of the ear.
  2. Describe the presentation and management of labyrinthitis and Meniere’s disease.
  3. Discuss the evaluation and treatment of otitis externa, otitis media, mastoiditis and tympanic membrane perforation.
  4. Compare and contrast the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of anterior versus posterior epistaxis.
  5. Evaluate the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic sinusitis.
  6. Discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of the following infectious/inflammatory disorders: Ludwig’s angina, stomatitis, parotitis, epiglottis, laryngitis, tracheitis, oral candidiasis, periapical abscess, peritonsillar abscess, pharyngitis, retropharyngeal abscess, sialolithiasis, dentalgia, TMJ disorders, and gingival disorders.

Psychiatric Learning Outcomes:

  1. Explain the various emergent medical conditions that can be thought to be a psychiatric disorder.
  2. Apply the mental status examination in the evaluation of the psychiatric patient.
  3. Evaluate the various criteria employed in determining the appropriate disposition of the psychiatric patient (voluntary vs. involuntary admission, discharge, or medical admission).
  4. What are the indications, contraindications, and adverse effects of commonly used psychiatric medications used in the acute setting, including antipsychotics and anxiolytics.
  5. Demonstrate the ability to use appropriate methods to restrain (e.g., chemical, physical) an acutely agitated or violent patient.
  6. Describe the presentation, differential diagnosis, and treatment of common Axis I disorders that present to the ED, including: schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, mood disorders, anxiety disorders, substance induced disorders, cognitive disorders (e.g. delirium, dementia), adjustment disorders, eating disorders, somatoform disorders, fictitious disorders, psychiatric disorders due to a general medical condition.

Credits: 3

Offered: Winter Semesters

This course will review Trauma, Non-Traumatic Musculoskeletal Disorders, Abdominal and Chest Emergencies. The student will be able to recognize and treat the disorders. The student will feel comfortable seeing and treating these patients in the Emergency Department.

Trauma Emergencies Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe how to perform a primary and secondary survey in evaluation of the trauma patient as outlined in the Advanced Trauma and Life Support (ATLS) guidelines.  
  2. Describe the role of the focused assessment with sonography in trauma (FAST) exam in the trauma patient.  
  3. Describe the signs and symptoms of hemorrhagic shock.  
  4. Name the indications and contraindications for emergency procedures in the trauma patient such as: endotrachial intubation, cricothyroidotomy, tube thoracostomy, emergency department thoracotomy, and central venous catheter insertion.  Describe in detail how each of these procedures are performed, and their possible complications.
  5. Evaluate the diagnostic and treatment priorities in the head trauma patient. Describe the principle of primary and secondary brain injuries in the head trauma patient.  
  6. Explain the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic concerns of trauma in the pregnant patient. 
  7. Describe the management of spinal cord injuries.  Name the indications and potential benefit of steroids in patients with significant neurologic deficits following spinal cord trauma.  
  8. Describe the presentation, physical findings, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of traumatic aortic disruption, cardiac contusion, pulmonary contusion, rib fractures, clavicle fracture, sternal fracture, flail chest, hemothorax, pericardial tamponade, and pneumothorax.  
  9. Explain the management of patients that present with pelvic fractures.  Appreciate the potential for severe hemorrhage in addition to intra-abdominal and pelvic organ injuries.  
  10. Describe the management of common joint dislocations including: glenohumeral, elbow, interphalangeal, hip, knee, and ankle. 
  11. Understand the signs, symptoms and treatment of compartment syndromes.

Non-Traumatic Musculoskeletal Disorders Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe the diagnostic approach and ED treatment of non-traumatic neck and back pain.
  2. Name the various “red flags” that should prompt diagnostic imaging and specialty consultation in cases of neck or back pain.  
  3. Compare and contrast the clinical presentation of spinal cord compression, disk herniation, and spinal epidural abscess. 
  4. Describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of common hand infections, including: cellulitis, flexor tenosynovitis, deep space infections, closed fist injuries, paronychia, felon, herpetic whitlow.  
  5. Describe how to perform an arthrocentesis of the major joints.  Know how to interpret the results of joint fluid analysis to differentiate septic arthritis and other causes (e.g., gout, pseudogout).
  6. Describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of common overuse syndromes, including: carpal tunnel syndrome, DeQuervain’s tenosynovitis, plantar fasciitis, tendonitis, and shoulder impingement syndrome.

Abdominal Emergencies Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe how abdominal wall hernias are diagnosed and explain the appropriate treatment and disposition patients that present with this condition.
  2. Explain how the following disorders of the esophagus may present, how they are diagnosed, and their appropriate treatment:  esophagitis, GERD, caustic exposures, dysmotilities, Boerhaave’s syndrome, foreign bodies, Mallory-Weiss syndrome, strictures and stenosis, tracheoesophageal fistulas, and varices.
  3. Describe the complications of liver failure and cirrhosis, such as bleeding, hepatic encephalopathy, hepatorenal syndrome, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis.  List the laboratory abnormalities that may be encountered with these conditions.
  4. Explain how cholecystitis and ascending cholangitis may present, how one would work up a patient with this suspected diagnosis, and the appropriate management of this disease.
  5. Describe the common symptoms of pancreatitis, peptic ulcer disease and gastritis, and how they may be managed in the ED.
  6. Compare and contrast the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of upper versus lower GI bleeding.  
  7. Explain the complications of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
  8. Describe the risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment for partial and complete bowel obstruction and volvulus.
  9. Describe the manifestations of mesenteric ischemia as well as the risk factors, diagnosis, and treatment.
  10. Describe the typical and atypical manifestations of acute appendicitis as well as the diagnostic approach to the patient with possible appendicitis.
  11. Describe the syndrome of intussusception, how it is diagnosed, and how it is managed.
  12. Describe the manifestations of the following disorders of the rectum and anus as well as the appropriate treatment:  fissures, fistulas, internal/external hemorrhoids, rectal foreign bodies, rectal prolapse, and perirectal abscesses.

Chest Emergencies Learning Outcomes:

  1. Explain the typical presentation and the appropriate management of croup, epiglottitis, and bronchiolitis.
  2. Describe an approach to a patient with an upper airway obstruction.  
  3. List some of the complications of a tracheostomy and how they are evaluated.
  4. Discuss some of the etiologies of noncardiogenic pulmonary edema and how to treat this entity.
  5. Discuss the pathophysiology and nuances of treatment of an exacerbation of asthma/COPD.
  6. What are some of the complications of cystic fibrosis?
  7. Describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment for a patient that presents to the ED following exposure to toxic gases/fumes.
  8. Compare and contrast the pathophysiology, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment for spontaneous pneumothorax versus tension pneumothorax.  
  9. Discuss the various types of pneumonia including patterns of presentation and treatment:   aspiration, atypical, bacterial, fungal, viral, and pulmonary tuberculosis.

Credits: 3

Offered: Summer Semesters

This course will review Environmental, Toxicological and Dermatological Emergencies. The student will be able to recognize and treat the disorders. The student will feel comfortable seeing and treating these patients in the Emergency Department.

Environmental Emergencies Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of frostbite, trench foot and hypothermia.
  2. Explain the relationship between hypothermia and cardiac dysrhythmias and cardiac arrest.
  3. Describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of a patient with heat stroke and heat exhaustion.
  4. Explain the clinical features, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of bites from the following marine animals, venomous fish, snake bites and spiders. Describe the treatment of coral-induced injuries.
  5. Explain antibiotic therapy for an injury occurring in the marine environment.
  6. Describe the pathophysiology of barotrauma of ascent and barotrauma of descent during deep-sea diving.
  7. Compare and contrast “dry drowning” with “wet drowning”.
  8. Describe the pathophysiology of the fluid and electrolyte abnormalities that can be seen in the burn patient. Explain the method of fluid resuscitation in these patients. Describe how to estimate burn size and depth and criteria to transfer patient to burn unit.
  9. Explain how an electrical injury or lightning injury may impact the following body systems: cardiac, CNS, spinal cord, PNS, skin, eyes, ears, mouth, GI, muscles, and vascular.
  10. Describe the clinical features, pathophysiology, and treatment of acute mountain sickness.

Toxicology Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe the indications and contraindications of common antidotes including: naloxone, N-acetylcysteine, sodium bicarbonate, physostigmine, digoxin Fab, glucagon, calcium gluconate, fomepizole, dextrose, methylene blue, deferoxamine, octreotide, pralidoxime, pyridoxine, vitamin K 5.
  2. Compare and contrast the common toxic ingestions that can result in an anion gap metabolic acidosis.
  3. Compare and contrast the physical findings found in the common “toxidromes” including: opioid, sympathomimetic, cholinergic, anticholinergic, salicylates, and serotonin syndrome
  4. Describe the diagnostic approach and treatment of toxic alcohol ingestion including: methanol, ethylene glycol, and isopropyl alcohol.
  5. Distinguish between the various possible opiate overdose scenarios including: heroine, methadone, fentanyl, and oxycodone,
  6. Evaluate the clinical features, potential complications, and treatment for sympathomimetic toxicity
  7. Compare and contrast the clinical presentation, diagnostic approach, and treatment of acute versus chronic salicylates toxicity.
  8. Describe the approach to the patient with acute acetaminophen toxicity. Evaluate the role of the Rumack-Matthew nomogram.
  9. Describe the presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of other toxic ingestions including: alcohol, benzodiazepines and other sedatives, digoxin, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, phenytoin, lithium, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), iron, hydrocarbons, and volatile substances, caustic substances, cyanide and hypoglycemic agents.

Dermatology Learning Outcomes:

  1. Identify and describe the appropriate ED care for the following types of dermatitis: toxic epidermal necrolysis, exfoliative dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, alopecia areata, venous stasis, eczema, psoriasis.
  2. Identify and describe the appropriate ED care for the following maculopapular lesions: erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme, purpura, urticaria, Steven Johnson’s syndrome.
  3. Identify the following Vesicular/Bullous lesions: pemphigus vulgaris and bullous pemphigoid.
  4. Identify the following skin manifestations of infectious diseases: pityriasis, scarlet fever, rocky mountain spotted fever, enterovirus, measles, varicella, rubella, anthrax, roseola, Kawasaki’s disease, toxic shock syndrome, disseminated gonococcal infection, and meningococcemia.
  5. Identify and describe the treatment for the following skin infections: abscesses, cellulitis, erysipelas, impetigo, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, candidal infections, parasitic infestations, erythema infectiosum, herpes simplex, herpes zoster, molluscum contagiosum, and warts.

Credits: 3

Offered: Summer Semesters

This course will review Renal/Urogenital, Metabolic and Immunologic Emergencies. The student will learn how to identify and treat these emergencies. The student will be comfortable in treating these disorders in the Emergency Room setting.

Renal and Urogenital Emergencies Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe the signs, symptoms and ED treatment of acute renal failure. Evaluate the indications for emergent hemodialysis, with and without access.
  2. Compare the chronic complications of hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis
  3. Describe the management of vascular access associated hemorrhage in the hemodialysis patient.
  4. Describe the symptoms, testing and treatment of urinary tract infections, acute cystitis and pyelonephritis.
  5. Etiologies and diagnostic approach to acute testicular/scrotal pain, including: epididymitis, testicular torsion, testicular trauma, Fourniers gangrene and orchitis.
  6. Describe the clinical presentation, differential diagnosis, diagnostic evaluation, and ED treatment of renal colic and hematuria.
  7. Describe the potential complications of common urologic procedures including: lithotripsy, ureteral stents, urinary catheterization, percutaneous nephrostomy.

 Metabolic and Endocrine Emergencies Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and ED treatment of acute complications of diabetes mellitus including: Hypoglycemia, Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome (HHNS).
  2. Signs, symptoms and treatment of alcoholic ketoacidosis.
  3. Clinical presentation and ED treatment of hyperthyroid states from thyrotoxicosis to thyroid storm.
  4. Describe the treatment of hypothyroidism and myxedema coma.
  5. List the common causes of primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency.
  6. Describe the clinical presentation and ED treatment of adrenal crisis.
  7. Evaluate the proper use and various dosages of corticosteroids in the treatment of adrenal insufficiency in the setting of physiologic stressors
  8. Describe the signs, symptoms and treatment of electrolyte disturbances including: hyper-/hypokalemia, hyper-/hyponatremia, hyper-/hypocalcemia, hyper-/hypomagnesemia, hyper-/hypophosphatemia.

 Immunologic Emergencies Learning Outcomes:

  1. Describe the signs, symptoms and treatment of hypersensitivity reactions including: urticaria , anaphylaxis, angioedema and drug allergies
  2. Describe the common complications and treatment of common collagen vascular disorders including: Raynaud’s syndrome, Reiter syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), scleroderma and  rheumatoid arthritis.
  3. Describe the signs, symptoms and treatment of problems that arise following transplantation (heart, lung, liver, kidney), focusing on rejection and complications of chronic immunosuppressive therapy.
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